Muallif Mavzu: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da  ( 12913 marta o'qilgan)

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Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:48:56 »
Tashkent (Toshkent; its name translates from the Turkoman language to "Stone City" in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan. Its population in 1999 was 2,142,700.


Geography
Tashkent is located at 41'16' 69'13'. The local time in Tashkent is UTC/GMT +5 hours.
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #1 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:49:22 »
History

Tashkent is an ancient city and major caravan crossroads on the Silk Road. It started as an oasis on the Chircuk River, near the foothills of the western Tien Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area was the principality of Chach, whose capital of Kanka had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 km south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had over 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The capital was called Ming-Uruk ("Thousand Apricot Orchard"), and the area was famous for horses, cattle, gold, and precious stones. In 751 AD, the Chinese invaded and executed the prince of Chach, provoking an Arab invasion in return. The Arabs were victorious at the Battle of Talas, and the region subsequently came under the sway of Islam.

Under the Samanid dynasty, the city came to be known as Binkath. However, the Arabs retained the old name of Chash, pronouncing it Shash instead. The modern Turkic name of Tashkent (City of Stone) comes from Kara-Khanid rule in the 10th century.

The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219, although the great conqueror had found that the Khorezmshah had already sacked the city in 1214. Under the Timurids and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties the city revived, despite occasional attacks by the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Persians, Mongols, Oirats and Kalmyks.

In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia. It prospered greatly through trade to Russia, but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy also favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. Before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived first.

In May 1865, General Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar, and outnumbered at least 15-1 staged a daring night attack against a city with a 25 kilometer long wall, 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders. Chernyayev, dubbed the “Lion of Tashkent” by city elders, staged a “hearts-and-minds” campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city be made an independent khanate under Russian protection. The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a “loose cannon”, and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman. Far from granting Tashkent its independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

With the fall of the Russian Empire, a provisional government attempted to maintain control in Tashkent. It was quickly overthrown and local Muslim opposition crushed. In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, British spies, basmachi, revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscow. Tashkent fell within the borders of the Uzbek SSR, and became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1930, displacing Samarkand.

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s, but industry increased tremendously during World War II, with the re-location of factories from western Russian to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity from the invading Nazis. The Russian population increased dramatically as well, with evacuees from the war zones increasing the population to well over a million. (The Russian population would eventually comprise of nearly half of the total residents of Tashkent)

On April 25 1966, Tashkent was destroyed by a huge earthquake (7.5 on the Richter scale). Over 300,000 were left homeless. Soviet historians made a great story about "battalions of fraternal peoples” and urban planners from each of the Soviet republics, who “volunteered” to rebuild devastated Tashkent. They did a good job, creating a “model Soviet city” of wide shady streets, parks, immense plazas for military parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. At that time residents of Tashkent began to realize that they were not being consulted in the planning, or necessarily being hired in the rebuilding. The problem exploded when Moscow announced that 20% of the new buildings would be given to the mostly Russian “volunteers”, who would be staying permanently. The subsequent riots were called the Pakhtakor Incident, after the stadium where the trouble began, and eventually the Red Army had to be called in to maintain order.

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth largest city in the country, while being a center of learning in the science and engineering fields

Tashkent today is a very Soviet city, with very little reminders of its position on the Silk Road or its 2000+ years of history. It is the most cosmopolitan city in both Uzbekistan and Central Asia, with large ethnic Russian and Korean minorities. The city is noted for its tree lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks. As capital of the nation, it has also been the target of several terrorist attacks since Uzbekistan independence, which the government has attributed to Islamic fundamentalists.
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #2 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:49:42 »
Sights

Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during 1917 revolution and, later, to the 1966 earthquake, little remains of Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage. Tashkent is, however, rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments.

* Kukeldash Madrassa

Dating back to the reign of Abdullah Khan (1557-1598) it is currently being restored by the provincial Religious Board of Mawarannahr Moslems. There is talk of making it into a museum, but it is currently being used as a mosque.

* Chorsu Bazaar

Near the Kukeldash Madrassa, this huge open air bazaar is the center of the old town of Tashkent. Everything imaginable is for sale.

* Telyashayakh Mosque (Khast Imam Mosque)

Contains the Uthman Qur'an, considered to be the oldest existent Quran in the world. Dating from 655 and stained with the blood of murdered caliph Uthman, it was brought by Timur to Samarkand, seized the Russians as a war trophy and taken to Saint Petersburg. It was returned to Uzbekistan in 1989.

* Yunus Khan Mausoleum


Prince Romanov PalaceA group of three 15th century mausoleums, restored in the 19th century. The biggest is the grave of Yunus Khan, grandfather of Mughal Empire founder Babur.

* Palace of Prince Romanov

During the 19th century Grand Duke Nikolai Romanov (1850-1917), a first cousin of Russian tsar Nicholas II was banished to Tashkent for some shading deals involving the Russian Crown Jewels. His palace still survives in the centre of the city. Once a museum, it has been appropriated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #3 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:49:55 »
* Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre

Built by the same architect who did Lenin's Tomb in Moscow, Aleksey Shchusev, and built with Japanese prisoner of war labor in World War II, this theatre hosts Russian ballet and opera to Uzbek concerts.

Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan

Contains a major collection of art from the pre-Russian period, including Sogdian murals, Buddhist statues and Zoroastrian art, along with a more modern collection of 19th and 20th century Uzbek applied art, such as suzani embroidered hangings. Of more interest is the large collection of paintings "borrowed" from the Hermitage by Grand Duke Romanov to decorate his palace in exile in Tashkent, and never returned. Behind the museum is a small park, containing the neglected graves of the Bolsheviks who died in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and to Ossipov's treachery in 1919, along with first Uzbek President Yuldush Akhunbabayev.

* Museum of Applied Arts

Housed in a traditional Uzbek house originally commissioned for a wealthy tsarist diplomat, the house itself is the main attraction, rather than its collection of 19th and 20th century applied arts.

* History Museum

Tashkent's largest museum, housed in the ex-Lenin Museum.

The Amir Timur Museum

An impressive building with brilliant blue dome and ornate interior (see photo right). Inside, the exhibits of Timur and of President Karimov vie for the visitor's attention. The gardens outside contain a statue of Timur on horseback, surrounded by some of the nicest gardens and fountains in the city.

* Navoi Literary Museum

A commemoration of Uzbekistan's adopted literary hero, Alisher Navoi, with replica manuscripts, Persian calligraphy and 15th century miniature paintings.
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #4 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:50:21 »
City built environment

- The only modern metro system in Central Asia.
- The Tashkent Airport is the largest one in the country connecting the town to Asia, Europe and American continents.
- The largest city square (Independence Square) in the former Soviet Union, which once held the tallest statue of Lenin (30 meters tall) in the Soviet Union. Lenin was replaced in 1992 by a globe showing a map of Uzbekistan.
- Government, trade union and private medical and dental facilities.
- Offices of several American and European consulting firms like Arthur Andersen Ltd, Deloitte & Touche, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Gravamen Fidelis and Fides LLP
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #5 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:50:48 »
Education

Several universities and institutions of higher learning:
Westminster International University in Tashkent
National University of Uzbekistan
Tashkent State University of Economics
Tashkent State Institute of Law
Tashkent Institute of Finance
University of World Economy and Diplomacy
State University of Foreign Languages
Conservatory of Music
Tashkent State Medicine Academy
Institute of Oriental Studies.
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

Abdusalom

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Re: Toshkent haqida "Wikipedia Encyclopedia"da
« Javob #6 : 20 Iyun 2006, 01:51:11 »
Media

9 Uzbek language newspapers, 4 in English and 9 publications in Russian
Several television and cable television facilities, including Tashkent Tower, the tallest structure in Central Asia.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tun bo`yi bemorga yig`lab bir odam,
Tongda o`lib qoldi, bemorchi bardam.
Qanchalar chopqir ot jon taslim etdi,
Cho`loq eshak esa manzilga yetdi.

 

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